Choose a background color: 

Historical Documents Of Jammu and Kashmir.html

Claim Over Laddaakh

(English translation of the persion text of the treaty signed at Leh on second of Asuj 1899 Bikrami september,1842 between the Government of Maharajah Gulab Singh and the Government of Tibet.)

Whereas we the Officer,of the Lhasa country,viz,firstly,kalon Surkhan and secondly Depon Pishi commander of the forces of the empire of China, aon the one hand and Dewan Hari Chand and Wazir Ratanu on behalf of Maharajah Gulab Singh on the other ,agree to stay together and swear before God that the friendship between Maharajah Gulab Singh and the Emperor of China and the Lama Guru Sahib Lassawalla will be kept and observed till eternity: no disregard will be shown to anything agreed upon in the presence of God;and we will respect the boundary of Laddakh and the countries bordering on it as fixed since olden times.We will carry on the trade in Shawl,Pasham, and Tea as before by way of Laddakh and if anyone of the Shri Maharajah's enemies comes to our territoriesand says anything against the Rajah ,we will nopt listen to him,and will not allow him to remain in our country ,and what ever traders come from Laddakh shall experience no difficulty from our side. We will not act otherwise but in the same manner as it has been prescribed in this meeting regarding the fixing of the Laddakh frontier and the keeping open of the road for the traffic in Shawl,Pasham and Tea.We will observe our pledge to God,Gaitiri and Pasi,Wazir Mian Khushal Chu is witness. Document was written on the second day of Asuj 1899(september,1842)

The Tibetan version of Treaty

Kalon Surkhan and Investigating officer Depon Pishi on behalf of his Holiness the Dalai Lama and his officials, and shri Khalsaji Absarani, shiri Maharaja, Lala Golani, the representative khashur Shag Ghulam Mohammed through an interpreter, Amir shah{on behalf of Ghulab singh} have arrived atLaddakh and discussed the terms of the peace treaty. in the ist place the two contracting parties have decided to sink all the past diffirences and ill feeling and to consider the friendship and unity between the two kings re-establish for ever. this peace treaty between shri Maharaja Ghulab Singh and Shri Guru Lama of Lhasa has been restored and there will be no cause for enmity in future in thr two nations regarding their respective frontiers. Shri Maharaja Sahib has declared, invoking God as his witness, that he will not deviate from the terms of the agreement. It is agreed that the two brother Kings of Laddakh and Queen shall remain peacefully in Laddakh and shall not induldge in anyintrigue, beside trying to permote the friendly relations between the two nations. the Laddakhis shall send the annual tribute to His Holiness the Dalai Lama and his Minisres unfailingly as heretofre and the Shri Maharaja Sahib will not interfere with this arranment. Norestriction shall be laid on the the mutual export of commodities e.g.Tea,peice goods.etc,and tradind shall be followed according to the old established custom.the Laddakhis shall supply the Tibetan Government traders with usual transport animals and arrange for their accomodation as heretofore,and the Tbetans will also do the same to the Laddakhis who come to Tibet with the annual tributr. it is agreed taht no trouble will be occasioned to the Tibetans Government by the Laddakhis. we invoke God to bear witness to this agreement whereby the friendly relations between Shri Maharaja Sahib and the Lhasa Government shall continue as between members of the same family. this is signed on the second day of the month of Asuj, year 1899.

The Ugly Treaty Of Amritsar March 16, 1846.

The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharaja Ghulab singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie,Esq and Brever Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the order of Rt,Hon.Sir Henery Hardinge, G.C.B,one of her Britainic Majesty's most Honorable Privy council, Governer-General of the possessions of the East India company, to direct and control all the affairs in the East Indies and by Maharaja Ghulab Singh in person-1846.

Article 1.

The British Government transfers and makes over for in independent possession to Maharaja Ghulab Singh and the heirs male of his body all the hilly or mountainous country with it depedencies situated to the eastward of the indus river and westward of the river Ravi including Chamba and excluding Lahul, being part of the territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according to the provision of the article IV of the Treaty Of Lahore, dated 9th March, 1846.

Article 2.

The eastern boundary of the tract transferred by the foregoing article to Maharaja Ghulab Singh shall be laid down by the commissioners appointed by the British Government and Maharaja Ghulab Singh respectively for that purpose and shall be defined in a separate engagement after survey.

Article 3.

in consideration of the transfer made to him and his heirs by the provisions of the foregoing article Maharaja Ghulab Singh will pay to the British Government the Sum of Seventy-five Lakhs of Rupees [ Nanukshahee], fifty lakhs to be paid on or before the Ist October of the current year,AD,1846.

Article 4.

The limits of territories of Maharaja Ghulab Singh shall not be at any time changed without concurrence of the British Goverment.

Article 5.

Maharaja Ghulab Singh will refer to the arbitration of the British Government any disputes of question that may arise between himself and the Government of Lahore or any other neighboring state,and will abide by the decision of the British Government.

Article 6.

Maharaja Ghulab Singh engages for himself and heirs to join, the whole of his military Forces.the British troops when emloyed within the hills or in the territories adjoining his possessions.

Article 7.

Maharaja Ghulab Singh engages never to yake to retain in his service any british subject nor the subject of any European or american state without the consent of the British Government.

Article 8.

Maharaja Ghulab Singh engages to respect in regard to the territory transfered to him, the provision of Artcles V, VI and VII of the separate Engagement between the British Government and the Lahore Durbar,dated 11th March 1846.

Article 9.

The British Government will give its aid to Maharaja Chulab Singh in protecting his territories from external enemies.

Article 10.

Maharaja Ghulab singh acknowledges the supermacy of the British Government and will in token of such supermacy present annually to the British Government One Horse,twelve Shawls sheaps of approved breed { 6 male & 6 Female } and Three pairs of Cashmere Shawls.

This treaty of Ten articles has been this day settled by Frederick Currie.Esq and Brever-major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under directions of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor General, on the part of the British Government and by Maharaja ghulab singh in person, and the said treaty has been ratified by the seal of the Rt.Hon.Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor-General. ( Done at Amritsar the sixteenth day of March in the year of our lord one thousand Eight hundred and forty six, corresponding with the seveteenth day of the Rubee-ul-awal (1262 Hijree.) Signed Hardinge { Seal } Signed F. Currie Signed H.M. Lawrence